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Dating scammer Rhoda Naa from Accra, Ghana

 

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2009-05-13, 08:02:11
wanwan from Japan  
@2009-05-13, 03:12:57
cagekopia@yahoo.com from Ghana

Nice to meet you!
Will you do me a favor?
A girl has given me her mail.
Please read it as follows:

1)0207628266 phone number
2) janitah from ghana, am 25 years of age and am a student of Archbishop Porter Girls Polytechnic studing Secretaria course
3)Janitah Essien
C/o Madam Felicity De-Graft
Axim Road Post Office
Takoradi- Ghana

4)akyerefa@ya. com
******************************************************************************
This is her(or boy?) info.
Please check this info and will post your results on this web site for innocent peoples?
Thank you for your time
See you !
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2009-05-13, 08:35:01
wanwan from Japan  
@2009-05-13, 03:12:57
cagekopia@yahoo.com from Ghana

Hi,once again I ask you for your favor.

Please check this info and will post your result on this web site?

*******************************************************************************
TEL : +234 (0) 8023435306

19th Floor, Corn Oil Building
Marina, Lagos


Muritala Muhammed International Airport, Ikeja -Lagos

deborah Ajoke' <deborahajoke@gm. com>
*******************************************************************************
This is a girl or a boy ?
I am waiting for your investigations with impatience!!
Thank you for your time,
Have a good day !!
Best regard to Scambuster in Ghana!
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2009-05-13, 08:42:56
wanwan from Japan  
@pete in UK

How are you my mate,pete?
No need ,grand finale.
So come back and let's talk about crazy scammers,
try to bust ass hole scammers,419 fraud.
We need your help,support.
See soon my pete.
This image was also posted here:
Dating scammer Ms. Rhoda Addo from Accra, Ghana
Dating scammer Ekaterina Rozhentsova



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2009-05-13, 10:11:42
anonymous from United States  
Here's another one from Ghana. Her name is Adu something or other. She doesn't know it but she's the one getting played. She think there is $2000 USD in the mail. Ya right. Stupid bitch.


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2009-05-13, 16:32:00
anonymous  
hello agent 86
i have a thought and i would like for you to check out my thinking. if you read articles about Accra Ghana now they are saying it will be another sin city like Las Vegas, Nevada -topless and nudie bars are spreading and we already know that alot of porno is exported from there. so isnt it possible that maybe some of the girls in one or more of the exotic dancing clubs (or their pimp or pimps) have got together and decided to use their own or other photos to scam people. if you look at myspace and browse women in ghana look at how some of them are dressed and just their look. see if any of the names match relatives or friends of anyone you have spoken with and you will find that some do. or a close deviation of the name. i think that some of the scamming comes from them and the like and not just from internet cafes. even some from the porn people in ghana. if you contact some of the girls it almost always shows that they are already in your extended network. even after contacting just 3 or 4. now why is that? because they already know each other...hum. please investigate or tell me what you think.
This image was also posted here:
Dating scammer Rhoda Naa from Accra, Ghana
Dating scammer Rhoda Naa from Accra, Ghana
Dating scammer Rhoda Naa from Accra, Ghana
Dating scammer Esther Ansomaa from Accra, Ghana
Dating scammer Rhoda Naa from Accra, Ghana
Dating scammer Rhoda Naa from Accra, Ghana
Dating scammer Esther Ansomaa from Accra, Ghana
Dating scammer Rhoda Naa from Accra, Ghana
Dating scammer Rhoda Naa from Accra, Ghana
Dating scammer Rhoda Naa from Accra, Ghana
Dating scammer Rhoda Naa from Accra, Ghana
Dating scammer Rhoda Naa from Accra, Ghana
Dating scammer Esther Ansomaa from Accra, Ghana
Dating scammer Esther Ansomaa from Accra, Ghana
Dating scammer Esther Ansomaa from Accra, Ghana
Dating scammer Rhoda Naa from Accra, Ghana
Dating scammer Esther Ansomaa from Accra, Ghana
Dating scammer Esther Ansomaa from Accra, Ghana
Dating scammer Esther Ansomaa from Accra, Ghana
Dating scammer Rhoda Naa from Accra, Ghana
Dating scammer Rhoda Naa from Accra, Ghana
Dating scammer Rhoda Naa from Accra, Ghana
Dating scammer Rhoda Naa from Accra, Ghana
Dating scammer Esther Ansomaa from Accra, Ghana
Dating scammer Rhoda Naa from Accra, Ghana
Dating scammer Rhoda Naa from Accra, Ghana
Dating scammer Josh Kelly
Dating scammer Rhoda Naa from Accra, Ghana
Dating scammer Rhoda Naa from Accra, Ghana
Dating scammer Rhoda Naa from Accra, Ghana
Dating scammer Rhoda Naa from Accra, Ghana
Dating scammer Rhoda Naa from Accra, Ghana
Dating scammer Josh Kelly
Dating scammer Rhoda Naa from Accra, Ghana
Dating scammer Rhoda Naa from Accra, Ghana
Dating scammer Esther Ansomaa from Accra, Ghana
Dating scammer Rhoda Naa from Accra, Ghana
Dating scammer Esther Ansomaa from Accra, Ghana
Dating scammer Esther Ansomaa from Accra, Ghana
Dating scammer Esther Ansomaa from Accra, Ghana
Dating scammer Rhoda Naa from Accra, Ghana
Dating scammer Josh Kelly
Dating scammer Esther Ansomaa from Accra, Ghana
Dating scammer Esther Ansomaa from Accra, Ghana
Dating scammer Esther Ansomaa from Accra, Ghana
Dating scammer Esther Ansomaa from Accra, Ghana
Dating scammer Rhoda Naa from Accra, Ghana
Dating scammer Esther Ansomaa from Accra, Ghana
Dating scammer Rhoda Naa from Accra, Ghana
Dating scammer Rhoda Naa from Accra, Ghana
Dating scammer Rhoda Naa from Accra, Ghana
Dating scammer Esther Ansomaa from Accra, Ghana
Dating scammer Josh Kelly
Dating scammer Esther Ansomaa from Accra, Ghana
Dating scammer Rhoda Naa from Accra, Ghana
Dating scammer Esther Ansomaa from Accra, Ghana
Dating scammer Rhoda Naa from Accra, Ghana
Dating scammer Esther Ansomaa from Accra, Ghana
Dating scammer Josh Kelly
Dating scammer Rhoda Naa from Accra, Ghana
Dating scammer Rhoda Naa from Accra, Ghana
Dating scammer Esther Ansomaa from Accra, Ghana
Dating scammer Josh Kelly
Dating scammer Rhoda Naa from Accra, Ghana
Dating scammer Esther Ansomaa from Accra, Ghana
Dating scammer Rhoda Naa from Accra, Ghana
Another dating / chat scam - USA/ Nigeria connection
Dating scammer Rhoda Naa from Accra, Ghana
Dating scammer Rhoda Naa from Accra, Ghana
Another dating / chat scam - USA/ Nigeria connection
Dating scammer Esther Ansomaa from Accra, Ghana
Dating scammer Rhoda Naa from Accra, Ghana
Dating scammer Kenny Williams
Dating scammer Rhoda Naa from Accra, Ghana



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2009-05-13, 18:40:42
Agent,86 from Salem, United States  
rating
Anonymous 2009 - 05 - 13 16:32:00

I believe that in Ghana there are many good people.
Unfortunately they are next to impossible to tell from the many scammers
operating out of there at this time. Virtually no one can be trusted because
of sheer volume of scams coming from there right now.
As for family connections that and friends networking together is a big part
of the problem. Just as in the Bust in Nigeria when the police made their raid
on a Internet Cafe. Family of those being arrested attacked the police.
Even in Russia scammers are family at times. I even do not accept at this
time that cagekopia as being a actual scam buster. I say that as a few months
back, I was contacted by a person who also claimed to be from Sweden.
He tried many times to invite me to go to Ghana and meet the so called
good girls, He recommended to me. Sound familiar yet cagekopia ?
Turned out his first pick to hook me up with a hard working honest girl. LOL
Which incodently also was in trouble with her business and needed money. LOL
OK, I'm a bit slow at times but give me a break. I had just cut loose one
blood sucking leach and here a so called friend to me was trying to hook me
up with another one. I suppose they thought by telling me because somebody,
I never met from Sweden was being so nice and that, I must trust him because,
He said so that, I should start giving out money to who, He said was someone
that wasn't a scammer. Well Bull Shit !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Its a scam no matter who tries to sell you on it.
This Cagekopia from Sweden sounds like, He is doing the exact same thing.
We are to trust him ? Why should we ?
He is supposed to be there as, His first postings here indicated to investigate
scammers ? Now, his postings sound like a travel brochure with recommended
girls even. Why is that ? I view, Him as someone who's word cannot be trusted.
Again don't get me wrong from reports by others who have gone to Ghana
it is in African terms a Utopia in comparison to others.
So much so woman from Ghana do not want to leave Ghana at all.
In fact they have more freedom and rights there than exist currently in the USA.
Plus the other reports clearly came to the very same conclusion.
There are no white or black woman on line looking for love, Only scammers.
I don't care if someone does not like my comments as, I am unmovable on the
point that if a person is ever contacted by anyone from Ghana, Nigeria, Senegal,
Gold Coast, Ivory Coast, All of West Africa It is a scammer !!!!!!!!!!!!
If, You think, Your a exception and got hooked up with a real good girl. Go for it but then when, Your hurt and broke come on back and admit, I was right. You have much better odds at playing Russian Roulette with a pistol than actually hooking up with someone from West Africa that is not a scammer. Again why should, I believe
someone who claims to be from, Sweden who suddenly pops up on here and
Say's O look, I'm a good guy.
Not going to happen. Maybe someday when the scammers are busted and
gone, I may consider changing my opinion. But by the sheer volume of reports
that are made every day on this site about so many scams coming out Ghana.
Why would anyone want to take a chance on anything ?
As for who is doing the scams in large numbers young college age men.
But there are woman also try http://419eater.com.._room.htm
Take a look and see for yourself actual photo's of scammers.
I guarantee, You will be surprised. They don't look like the night club
Porn Site regulars at all. So, I will stand by my statement there are absolutely
no one men or women from Accra Ghana or West Africa that can be trusted
that are on line. Just don't ply with fire and, You won't get burned.
cagekopia challenged my saying that, I sent money through Western Union
and used the MCTN and password with answer so my scammer could collect
the money without ID. Not only did that happen with me but there is another
posting by another victim that posted on the 12th. that, He also did the
very same thing. So cagekopia may be right in the fact that it goes against
Western Union Policy. But it didn't raise a eyebrow here in Salem, Oregon
when, I told the workers what, I was doing. Don't try to tell me these workers
in Salem, Oregon are part of the scam.

Kind Regards Agent 86 Maxwell Smart \\'^o^'//

There is a video of this bust on YouTube it shows the familys attacking the police.
This image was also posted here:
Dating scammer Rhoda Naa from Accra, Ghana
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Dating scammer Ronald Beven
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Dating scammer Osai Williams from Ghana
Dating scammer Marcus Owen
Dating scammer Harry McDaniel Ashwood, in Nigeria
Dating scammer Tatyana (photos: Raven Riley)



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2009-05-14, 00:09:17
wanwan from Japan  
@Anon

I agree with agent 86.

And please read it

Make a donation to Wikipedia and give the gift of knowledge!Advance-fee fraud
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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This article needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (April 2009)

An advance-fee fraud is a confidence trick in which the target is persuaded to advance sums of money in the hope of realizing a significantly larger gain.[1] Among the variations on this type of scam, are the Nigerian Letter (also called the 419 fraud, Nigerian scam, Nigerian bank scam, or Nigerian money offer[2]),[3] the Spanish Prisoner, the Black money scam as well as Russian/Ukrainian scam (also extremely widespread, though far less popular than the former). Both the so-called Russian and Nigerian scams stand for wholly dissimilar organised crime traditions, they therefore tend to use altogether different breeds of approaches.

The 419 scam originated in the early 1980s as the oil-based Nigerian economy declined. Several unemployed university students first used this scam as a means of manipulating business visitors interested in shady deals in the Nigerian oil sector before targeting businessmen in the west, and later the wider population. Scammers in the early-to-mid 1990s targeted companies, sending scam messages via letter,[4] fax, or Telex.[5] The spread of email and easy access to email-harvesting software significantly lowered the cost of sending scam letters by utilizing the Internet. In the 2000s, the 419 scam has spurred imitations from other locations in Africa, Asia and Eastern Europe, and, more recently, from North America, Western Europe (mainly UK), and Australia.

The number '419' refers to the article of the Nigerian Criminal Code (part of Chapter 38: 'Obtaining Property by false pretences; Cheating') dealing with fraud.[6] The American Dialect Society has traced the term '419 fraud' back to 1992.[7]

The advance-fee fraud is similar to a much older scam known as the Spanish Prisoner scam[8] in which the trickster would tell the scam victim that a (fictitious) rich prisoner had promised to share (non-existent) treasure with the victim if the latter would send money to bribe the prison guards. An even older version of this scam existed by the end of 18th century, and is called 'the Letter From Jerusalem' by Eugène François Vidocq in his memoirs[9]

Insa Nolte, a lecturer of University of Birmingham's African Studies Department, stated that 'The availability of e-mail helped to transform a local form of fraud into one of Nigeria's most important export industries.'[10]

Embassies and other organizations warn visitors to various countries about 419. Countries in West Africa with warnings cited include Nigeria,[8][11] Ghana,[12][13] Benin,[14] Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast),[15] Togo,[16][17] Senegal[18] and Burkina Faso.[19] Countries outside of West Africa with 419 warnings cited include South Africa[17][20], Spain,[20] and The Netherlands.[21]

Contents [hide]
1 Implementation
2 Common elements
2.1 Fake checks
2.2 Wire transfer
2.3 Anonymous communication
2.3.1 Web-based e-mail
2.3.2 E-mail hijacking/friend scams
2.3.3 Fax transmissions
2.3.4 Telecommunications relay services
2.4 Fake websites
2.5 Invitation to visit the country
2.6 Followup Scamming
3 Variants
3.1 Purchasing goods and services
3.2 Check cashing
3.3 Romance angle
3.4 Lottery scam
3.5 Hitman
3.6 Bomb scams
3.7 Charity scams
3.8 Fraud recovery scams
3.9 Pet scams
4 Consequences
4.1 Monetary loss estimates
4.2 Physical harm or death
4.2.1 Kidnapping
4.2.2 Murder
4.3 Emotional harm
4.4 Arrests
4.5 Victim becoming a criminal
4.6 'Scam baiters'
5 Terms used by 419-scammers
6 Popular culture references
7 See also
8 References
9 Books
10 External links



[edit] Implementation
This scam usually begins with a letter or e-mail[8] purportedly sent to a selected recipient but actually sent to many making an offer that will ultimately result in a large payoff for the intended victim. The email's subject line often says something like 'From the desk of Mr. [Name]', 'Your assistance is needed', and so on. The details vary, but the usual story is that a person, often a government or bank employee, knows of a large amount of unclaimed money or gold which he cannot access directly, usually because he has no right to it. Such people, who may be real but impersonated people or fictitious characters played by the scammer, could include the wife or son of a deposed African or Indonesian leader or dictator who has amassed a stolen fortune, or a bank employee who knows of a terminally ill wealthy person with no relatives or a wealthy foreigner who had deposited money in the bank just before dying in a plane crash (leaving no will or known next of kin),[22] a U.S. soldier who has stumbled upon a hidden cache of gold in Iraq, a business being audited by the government, a disgruntled worker or corrupt government official who has embezzled funds, a refugee,[23] and similar characters. The money could be in the form of gold bullion, gold dust, money in a bank account, so-called 'blood diamonds', a series of cheques or bank drafts, and so forth. The sums involved are usually in the millions of dollars, and the investor is promised a large share, typically ten to forty percent, if they will assist the scam character in retrieving the money. Whilst the vast majority of recipients do not respond to these emails, a very small percentage do, enough to make the fraud worthwhile as many millions of messages can be sent. Invariably sums of money which are substantial, but very much smaller than the potential profits, are said to be required in advance for bribes, fees, etc.—this is the money being stolen from the victim, who thinks he is investing to make a huge profit.

Many operations are professionally organized in Nigeria, with offices, working fax numbers, and often contacts at government offices. The victim who attempts to research the background of the offer will often find that all pieces fit perfectly together. Such scammers can often lure wealthy investors, investment groups, or other business entities into scams resulting in multi-million dollar losses. However, many scammers are part of less organized gangs or are operating independently; such scammers have reduced access to the above connections and thus have little success with wealthier investors or business entities attempting to research them, but are still convincing to middle-class individuals and small businesses, and can bilk hundreds of thousands of dollars from such victims.

If the victim agrees to the deal, the other side will often send one or more false documents bearing official government stamps, and seals. 419 scammers often mention false addresses and use photographs taken from the internet or from magazines to falsely represent themselves. Often a photograph used by a scammer is not of any person involved in the scheme. Multiple 'people' involved in schemes are fictitious; the author of the 'WEST AFRICAN ADVANCE FEE SCAMS' article posted on the website of the Embassy of the United States in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire believes that in many cases one person controls many fictitious personas used in scams.[15]

A scammer will introduce a delay or monetary hurdle that prevents the deal from occurring as planned, such as 'in order to transmit the money, we need to bribe a bank official. Could you help us with a loan?' or 'In order for you to be allowed to be a party to the transaction, you need to have holdings at a Nigerian bank of $100,000 or more' or similar. More delays and more additional costs are added, always keeping the promise of an imminent large transfer alive, convincing the victim that the money they are currently paying will be covered several times over by the payoff. Sometimes psychological pressure is added by claiming that the Nigerian side, in order to pay certain fees, had to sell all belongings and borrow money on their house, or by pointing out the different salary scale and living conditions in Africa compared to the West. Much of the time, however, the needed psychological pressure is self-applied; once the victims have put money in toward the payoff, they feel they have a vested interest in seeing the 'deal' through. Some victims believe that they can cheat the con artist.[15] This idea is often encouraged by the fraudsters who write in a clumsy and uneducated style which presents them as naive and easily cheated by a sophisticated westerner.[citation needed]

The essential fact in all advance-fee fraud operations is that the promised money transfer never happens because the money or gold does not exist. The perpetrators rely on the fact that, by the time the victim realizes this (often only after being confronted by a third party who has noticed the transactions or conversation and recognized the scam), the victim may have sent thousands of dollars of their own money, and sometimes thousands or millions more that has been borrowed or stolen, to the scammer via an untraceable and/or irreversible means such as wire transfer.[15]

In extreme cases the victim may not realise he has been defrauded. A version of the scam is for the thief to claim to have contacts to facilitate legitimate business loans; the victim here is not persuaded that he is doing anything illegal. The fraudster will meet the victim, and must be able to act the part of a well-connected and experienced loan broker. He will ask for payment in advance; this is normal when arranging large loans. Then the loan will gradually fall through in a plausible way, and the victim may end up being defrauded of tens of thousands of dollars or pounds, but often thinking only that the deal unfortunately failed. These frauds may go unreported either because the victim does not realise he has been cheated, or due to reluctance to admit the facts; and reporting may be delayed until the victim becomes certain he has been cheated by non-disclosure clauses.[5].[broken citation]

The spam e-mails perpetrating these scams are often sent from Internet cafés equipped with satellite Internet. Recipient addresses and email content are copied and pasted into a webmail interface using a standalone storage medium, such as a memory card. Many areas of Lagos, such as Festac, contain many cyber cafés that serve scammers; many cyber cafés seal their doors during afterhours, such as from 10:30 PM to 7:00 AM, so that scammers inside may work without fear of discovery.[24]

Nigeria also contains many businesses that provide false documents used in scams; after a scam involving a forged signature of Nigerian President Olusegun Obasanjo in summer 2005, Nigerian authorities raided a market in the Oluwole section of Lagos. The police seized thousands of Nigerian and non-Nigerian passports, 10,000 blank British Airways boarding passes, 10,000 United States money orders, customs documents, false university certificates, 500 printing plates, and 500 computers.[24]

During the courses of many schemes, scammers ask victims to supply bank account information. Usually this is a 'test' devised by the scammer to gauge the victim's gullibility.[21]

Scammers often request that payments be made using a wire transfer service like Western Union and Moneygram. The reason given by the scammer will usually relate to the speed at which the payment can be received and processed, allowing quick release of the supposed payoff. The real reason is that wire transfers and similar methods of payment are irreversible, untraceable and, because identification beyond knowledge of the details of the transaction is often not required, completely anonymous.[15]

Telephone numbers used by scammers tend to come from mobile phones. In Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) a scammer may purchase an inexpensive mobile phone and a pre-paid SIM card without submitting subscriber information. If the scammers believed they are being traced, they discard their mobile phones and purchase new ones.[15]

In Benin, Nigerians operate scams with Beninese cooperating in the schemes.[14]

Some crime syndicates employ fraudsters in the United States who conclude 'deals' or threaten victims who try to leave deals.[25][26]

In addition to requiring payments, the fraudsters may use the victim's bank details and signature to withdraw money for themselves. In extreme cases the victim may be lured to a place where he or she may be kidnapped, have assets plundered, and then be murdered.


[edit] Common elements

[edit] Fake checks
Fraudulent checks and money orders are key elements in many advance-fee scams, such as auction/classified listing overpayment, lottery scams, inheritance scams, etc, and can be used in almost any scam when a 'payment' to the victim is required to gain, regain or further solidify the victims' trust and confidence in the validity of the scheme.

The use of checks in a scam hinges on a U.S. law (and common practice in other countries) concerning checks: when an account holder presents a check for deposit or to cash, the bank must (or in other countries, usually) make the funds available to the account holder within 1-5 business days, regardless of how long it actually takes for the check to clear and funds to be transferred from the issuing bank.[27] The check clearing process normally takes 7–10 days and can in fact take up to a month when dealing with foreign banks. The time between the funds appearing as available to the account holder and the check clearing is known as the 'float', during which time the bank could technically be said to have floated a loan to the account holder to be covered with the funds from the bank clearing the check.

The check given to the victim is typically counterfeit but drawn on a real account with real funds in it. With a piece of software like QuickBooks and/or pre-printed blank check stock, using the correct banking information, the scammer can easily print a check that is absolutely genuine-looking, passes all counterfeit tests, and may even clear the paying account if the account information is accurate and the funds are available. However, whether it clears or not, it will eventually become apparent either to the bank or the account holder that the cheque is a forgery. This can be as little as three days after the funds are available if the bank supposedly covering the check discovers the check information is invalid, or it could take months for a business or individual to notice the fraudulent draft on their account. It has been suggested that in some cases the check is genuine - however the fraudster has a friend (or bribes an official) at the paying bank to claim it is a fake weeks or even months later when the physical check arrives back at the paying bank.

Regardless of the amount of time involved, once the cashing bank is alerted that the check is fraudulent, the transaction is reversed and the money removed from the victim's account. In many cases, this puts victims in debt to their banks as the victim has usually sent a large portion of the check by some non-reversible 'wire transfer' means (typically Western Union) to the scammer and, since more uncollected funds have been sent than funds otherwise present in the victim's account, an overdraft results.


[edit] Wire transfer
A central element of advance-fee fraud is that the transaction from the victim to the scammer must be untraceable and irreversible. Otherwise, the victim, once they become aware of the scam, can successfully retrieve their money and/or alert officials who can track the accounts used by the scammer.

Wire transfers via Western Union are ideal for this purpose. The wire transfer, if sent internationally, cannot be cancelled or reversed, and the person receiving the money cannot be tracked. In fact, that person often does not have to provide identification; they only have to know the identifiers of the transaction such as the control number and secret question. Thus, the overwhelming majority of scams involve making payment via wire transfer. Other similar uncancellable forms of payment include postal money orders and cashier's cheques, but as wire transfer is the fastest method, it is the most common. In many cases Western Union will not take any action against potential fraud and will not advise the police that a fraud has been committed or assist without a court order. They claim there is no action they can take, and will not attempt anything to resolve this issue, including contacting the authorities in the country the money was sent to.[citation needed]


[edit] Anonymous communication
Since the scammer's operations must be untraceable to avoid identification, and because the scammer is often impersonating someone else, any communication between the scammer and his victim must be done through channels that hide the scammer's true identity. The following options in particular are widely used.


[edit] Web-based e-mail
Because many free e-mail services do not require valid identifying information, and also allow communication with many victims in a short span of time, they are the preferred method of communication for scammers. Some services, go so far as to mask the sender's source IP address, making the scammer completely untraceable even to country of origin. Scammers can create as many accounts as they wish and often have several active at one time. In addition, if email providers are alerted to the scammer's activities and suspend the account, it is a trivial matter for the scammer to simply create a new account to resume scamming.


[edit] E-mail hijacking/friend scams
Some fraudsters hijack existing e-mail accounts and use them for advance-fee fraud purposes. The fraudsters e-mail associates, friends, and/or family members of the legitimate account owner in an attempt to defraud them.[28] This ruse generally requires the use of phishing or keylogger computer viruses to gain login information for the e-mail address.


[edit] Fax transmissions
Facsimile machines are commonly used tools of business, whenever a client requires a hard copy of a document. They can also be simulated using web services, and made untraceable by the use of prepaid phones connected to mobile fax machines or by use of a public fax machine such as one owned by a document processing business like Kinko's. Thus, scammers posing as business entities often use fax transmissions as an anonymous form of communication. This is more expensive, as the prepaid phone and fax equipment will cost more than a free e-mail service, but the end result to a skeptical victim can be more believable and thus make faxes worth the added cost.


[edit] Telecommunications relay services
Many scams use telephone calls to convince the victim that the person on the other end of the deal is a real person and telling the truth. The scammer, possibly impersonating a U.S. citizen or other person of a nationality - or even gender - other than his or her own, would arouse suspicion by placing an ordinary voice call to the victim. In these cases, scammers use TRS, a US federally-funded relay service where an operator or a text/speech translation program acts as an intermediary between someone using an ordinary telephone and a deaf caller using TDD or other TeleType device. The scammer might specify they are deaf or not, and that their use of a phone requires the use of a relay service. The victim, possibly drawn in by a sense of sympathy for the caller in light of a stated disability, might be more inclined to agree to the fraudulent arrangement.

Because of current FCC regulations and confidentiality laws, operators are required to relay every call verbatim and must adhere to a strict code of confidentiality and ethics. Thus no relay operator is permitted to make judgements about the legality and/or legitimacy of any relay call and must relay the call without interference. As such, the relay operator cannot warn victims even when they suspect that the call is a scam; some sources claim that up to half of all IP Relay calls are scams.[29]

Due to the relative ease at tracking phone-based relay services, scammers have a tendency to use Internet Protocol-based relay services such as IP Relay to place these calls. A common strategy consists of binding their overseas IP address to a router or server located on US soil, thus allowing them to use US-based relay service providers without interference.

TRS is sometimes used to relay credit card information for the purposes of making a fraudulent purchase with a stolen credit card. In many cases however, it is simply a means for the scammer to further lure the victim into the scam.


[edit] Fake websites
Though 419 scams are often perpetrated by e-mail alone, some scammers enhance the believability of their offer through the use of a sham website. Such websites can imitate real sites such as eBay, PayPal, or a banking site like Bank of America or The Natwest Bank for the purposes of phishing, while others are totally fictional and used to lend credibility to a scammer's story. Though phishing is only a secondary interest of most scam operations, as the object of the scammer is to deceive the victim into sending the money through legitimate means, the use of websites for advance-fee fraud is common. For instance, a scammer may create a website for a fictional bank, then give the victim details to login to the site, where the victim then sees the money that the scammer has promised sitting in the account. The victim is then more likely to believe the scammer and send the requested advance payments. Fake (or hijacked) websites are the centerpiece of false online storefront scams.

Another twist on scamming is where links are provided to real news sites covering events the scammer says are relevant to the transaction they propose. For instance, a scammer may use news of the death of a prominent government official as a backstory for a scam involving getting millions of dollars of the slain official's money out of the country. These are real websites covering legitimate news, but the scammer is usually not connected in any way with the events reported, and is simply using the story to gain the victim's sympathy.


[edit] Invitation to visit the country
Sometimes, victims are invited to a country to meet real or fake government officials. Some victims who do travel are instead held for ransom. In some rumored cases, they are smuggled into the country without a visa and then threatened into giving up more money as the penalties for being in a foreign country without a visa may be severe.[30] Sometimes victims are ransomed or killed.[31][32]


[edit] Followup Scamming
Scammers recognise that their victim who has just been scammed is more likely to fall for scamming attempts than a random person. Often after a scam victim is contacted again by the scammer, representing himself as a law enforcement officer. The victim is informed that a group of criminals has been arrested and that they have recovered his money. To get the money back, the victim first has to pay a fee for processing or insurance purposes. Even after the victim has realised that he has been scammed, this follow up scam can be successful as the scammer represents himself as a totally different party yet knows details about the transactions. The realization that he has lost a large sum of money and the chance he might get it back often leads to the victim transferring even more money to the same scammer.


[edit] Variants
There are many variations on the most common stories, and also many variations on the way the scam works. The following are notable deviations from the standard Nigerian Letter scam, but still retain the core elements; the victim is deceived by some disproportionately large gain into sending an advance payment, which once made is irrecoverable.


[edit] Purchasing goods and services
A modern activity is advertising automobiles on websites. They list a (non-existent) high value car with a low price as bait to attract buyers eager to buy quickly. The scammer then says 'I am not in the country, but if you pay me first a friend will drive the car around to you'. The payment required may be the full price, or a deposit, but it wouldn't be an insignificant fee. You will never see the car for real, as it does not exist. They will use email only as they know that the sound of their voice and their attitude will give them away as being high risk.

Another scheme has involved advertising fake academic conferences and enticing academics to apply to present papers.. Its a common practice that the conference subsides or pays for the air travel of academics who present papers at the conference, but does not pay for accommodation. One way the scammer baits the hopeful attendee is they offer free air travel to the victim, but only as long as they pre-pay for hotel accommodation. The scammer can give a variety of reasons that the accommodation must be pre-paid - primarily that they don't trust you will attend the conference unless you pay upfront. At some stage the victim may receive a phone call from a pleasant sounding African man who says he is Doctor or some such.

Just about any goods or services can be used as the scam, but the idea is that they bait you with a good deal, but you must pay upfront and electronically.


[edit] Check cashing
Some schemes are based solely on conning the victim into cashing counterfeit check. The scammer will contact the victim to interest them in a 'work-at-home' opportunity, or asking them to cash a check or money order that for some reason cannot be redeemed locally. A recently-used cover story is that the perpetrator of the scam wishes the victim to work as a 'mystery shopper', evaluating the service provided by MoneyGram or Western Union locations within major retailers such as Wal-Mart.[33] The scammer sends the victim a check or money order, the victim cashes it, sends the cash to the scammer via wire transfer, and the scammer disappears. Later the forgery is discovered and the bank transaction is reversed, leaving the victim liable for the balance. Schemes based solely on check cashing will usually offer only a small part of the check's total amount, with the assurance that many more checks will follow; if the victim buys in to the scam and cashes all the check, the scammer can win big in a very short period of time. Other scams such as overpayment usually result in smaller revenues for the scammer, but have a higher success rate as the scammer's request seems more believable.

Some check-cashing scammers use multiple victims at multiple stages of the scam. A victim in the U.S. or other 'safe' country such as the UK or Canada (often the country in which the cashing victim resides) is sometimes approached with an offer to fill out cheques sent to them by the scammer and mail them to other victims who will cash the check and wire the money to the scammer. The check mailer is usually promised a cut of the money from the scammer; this usually never occurs, and in fact the check mailer is often conned into paying for the production and shipping costs of the checks. The check information has either been stolen or fictionalized and the checks forged. The victim mailing the check is usually far easier to track (and prosecute) than the scammer, so when the checks turn up as fraudulent, the one mailing them usually ends up not only facing federal bank fraud and conspiracy charges, but liability for the full amount of the fraudulent checks. Because the check mailer is taking the fall, the scammer is even less likely to be caught, which makes it a popular variation of the scam for scammers in nations with tougher anti-fraud laws.

A variation of the check-cashing scheme involves owners of vacation rentals. The scammer will express interest in renting the unit for a much higher than normal rate, usually for an upcoming honeymoon, business trip, etc. The scammer also offers to pay all fees 'up front' as soon as the unsuspecting unit owner agrees to the windfall rental. Eventually a very official looking money order/cashier's check arrives. About this time the scammer requests that a portion of the rental fee be returned for some compelling reason...wedding called off, death in the family, business failure, etc. Due to the supposed crises, it is requested that most of the rental fee be returned via wire transfer. The unit owner in encouraged to retain 'a fair amount' to compensate him for his time. The wire transfer is sent, only to find out later that the official looking check was indeed fake and the entire amount is charged back to the unit owner by his bank.


[edit] Romance angle
Main article: Romance scam
A recent variant is the 'Romance Scam' which is a money-for-romance angle. The victim is usually approached by the scammer on an online dating service, on an Instant messenger (like Yahoo IM) or even social networking sites. The scammer claims to have become interested in the victim, and have pictures posted of an attractive person who is not actually the poster. The scammer uses this communication to gain the victim's confidence, and then asks for money. The offending party may claim to be interested in meeting the victim, but needs some cash up front in order to book the plane, hotel room, and other expenses. In other cases, they may claim they're trapped in a foreign country and need assistance to return, to escape imprisonment by corrupt local officials, to pay for medical expenses due to an illness contracted abroad, and so on. The scammer may also use the confidence gained by the romance angle to introduce some variant of the original Nigerian Letter scheme, such as saying they need to get money or valuables out of the country and offer to share the wealth, making the request for help in leaving the country even more attractive to the victim. A newer version of the scam is to claim to have 'information' about the fidelity of a person's significant other which they will share for a fee. This information is garnered through social networking sites by using search parameters such as 'In a relationship' or 'Married'. Anonymous emails are first sent to attempt to verify receipt, then a new web based email account is sent along with directions on how to retrieve the information.


[edit] Lottery scam
Main article: Lottery scam
The lottery scam involves fake notices of lottery wins. The winner will usually be asked to send sensitive information to a free email account. The scammer will then notify the victim that in order to release the funds, some small fee (insurance, registration, or shipping) is required. Once the fee has been sent, the scammer will invent another fee and attempt to collect it.

Much like the various forms of overpayment fraud detailed above, a new variant of the lottery scam involves fake or stolen cheques being sent to the 'winner' of the lottery (these cheques representing a part payment of the winnings). The winner will then be more likely to assume that the win is legitimate and subsequently more likely to send the fee (which he does not realize is an advance fee). The cheque, and associated funds, will then be flagged by the bank when the fraud is discovered and debited from the victim's account.

In 2004 a variant of the lottery scam appeared in the United States. Fraud artists using the scheme call victims on telephones; a scammer tells a victim that a government has given him or her a grant and that he or she needs to pay an advance fee, usually around 250 USD, in order to receive the grant.[34]


[edit] Hitman
An e-mail is sent to the victim's inbox, supposedly from a hitman who has been hired by a 'close friend' of the recipient to kill him or her but will call off the hit in exchange for a large sum of money. This is usually backed up with a warning not to contact the local police or FBI, or the 'hitman' will be forced to go through with the plan.[30][35] This is less an advance-fee fraud and more outright extortion, but a reward can sometimes be offered in the form of the 'hitman' offering to kill the man who ordered the original hit on the victim.


[edit] Bomb scams
Related to the hitman scam, the scammer will contact a business, mall, office building or other commercial location with a bomb threat. The scammer says they will detonate the bomb unless the management of the business does as the scammer tells them. Often, the scammer says that they have the store under surveillance; however, analysis of the calls by police have established that the vast majority of threat calls are made from other states or even from outside the country. Some evidence exists that points to the scammers hacking into the store's surveillance network, but this has not been confirmed in any case and has been refuted in others.[36] The scammer usually demands that the store management or people in the headquarters office of the store (if the store is a chain) send money via wire transfer to the scammer to spare the store and the people in it. Other demands of these scammers have been more personal and humiliating, such as demanding that everyone in the store take off their clothes.[36]

Because the underlying threat in the scam is a bomb threat, local law enforcement very quickly responds to the site under threat; however, because the scammer is usually nowhere near this location, the scammer is in little if any danger of being apprehended while the scam is playing out. Law enforcement, in the meantime, cannot assume the threat is anything but genuine, and therefore can do little to intervene without risking the detonation of the bomb. The fact that the threat was in reality a scam has usually not been discovered until long after the situation is over—and the extortionist has collected the money demanded.


[edit] Charity scams
The scammer poses as a charitable organization soliciting donations to help the victims of a natural disaster, terrorist attack (such as the Sept. 11 World Trade Center attack), regional conflict, or epidemic. Hurricane Katrina and the 2004 tsunami were popular targets of scammers perpetrating charity scams; other more timeless scam charities purport to be raising money for cancer, AIDS or Ebola virus research, children's orphanages (scammer will pretend to work for the orphanage or a non-profit associated with it), or impersonate charities such as the Red Cross or United Way. The scammer asks for donations, often linking to online news articles to strengthen their story of a funds drive. The scammer's victims are charitable people who believe they are helping a worthy cause and expect nothing in return. Once sent, the money is gone and the scammer often disappears, though many will attempt to keep the scam going by asking for a series of payments. The victim may sometimes find themselves in legal trouble after deducting their supposed donations from their income taxes. United States tax law states that charitable donations are only deductible if made to a qualified non-profit organization.[37] The scammer may tell the victim their donation is deductible and provide all necessary proof of donation, but the information provided by the scammer is fictional, and if audited, the victim faces stiff penalties as a result of the fraud. Though these scams have some of the highest success rates especially following a major disaster, and are employed by scammers all over the world, the average loss per victim is less than other fraud schemes. This is because, unlike scams involving a large expected payoff, the victim is far less likely to borrow money to donate or donate more than they can spare.

In a related variant, the scammer will pose as a terminally ill mother, poor university student, or other down-on-their-luck person and simply beg the victim for money for college tuition, to sponsor their children, or a similar ruse. The money, they say, will be repaid plus interest by some third party at a later date (often these third parties are some fictitious agency of the Nigerian government, or the scammer themselves once a payment from someone else is made available to them). Once the victim starts paying money to the scammer, the scammer will tell the victim that additional money is needed for unforeseen expenses, similar to most other variants; in the case of the ill mother, the children will fall ill as well and require money for a doctor's care and medicine (many scammers go as far as to say that as the sponsor of the children, the victim is legally liable for such costs), where the student might claim that a dormitory fire destroyed everything they own.


[edit] Fraud recovery scams
This variant targets former victims of scams. The scammer contacts the victim saying that their organization can track and apprehend the scammer and recover the money lost by the victim, for a price. Alternatively, the scammer may say that a fund has been set up by the Nigerian government to compensate victims of 419 fraud, and all that is required is proof of loss (which usually includes personal information) and a processing and handling fee to release the amount of the claim. The scammer is counting on the victim's dire need to recover their lost money, as well as the fact that they have fallen victim before and are therefore susceptible to such scams. Often, these scams are perpetrated by the same scammer who conned the victim in the first place, as an attempt to ensure the scammer gets every penny possible from the victim. Alternately, the original scammer will 'sell' a list of the people he has scammed but who have ceased contact to another scammer who runs the recovery scam. Sometimes the scammer impersonates the foremost 'fraud related crime-fighters' in Nigeria, the EFCC (Economic and Financial Crimes Commission), which not only adds credibility to the scam, but tarnishes the reputation of the EFCC once this second scam is discovered.[15][38]


[edit] Pet scams
Another such scam is based on the adoption of a puppy (usually English Bulldogs or Yorkshire Terriers; a cute, expensive breed coveted by families who cannot afford them) or an exotic pet such a parrots or reptiles. A scammer first posts an advertisement or sets up a web page offering puppies for adoption or for sale at a ridiculously low price, most often using stolen pictures from other websites and respectable breeders. When a victim responds to the ad and questions the lowered price or the reason for giving up such an adorable and expensive pet, the scammer first explains that they have recently moved to Nigeria or Cameroon from the US for work (usually volunteer work as missionaries) or for studies, and claims either to have no time to properly care for the pet, that the weather has had such a terrible toll on the pet or that they have too many pets to care for.

The scammer and victim will exchange a few emails to build trust. Once it is established that the victim offers the right home for the pet, the scammer will then offer to ship the pet and requests that the victim only pay for shipping or comes off the original price substantially to seem legit. The victim, who now has an emotional attachment to the pet, feels obligated and even happy to do so, as shipping is a small price to pay compared to the pet's full price at a shop or breeder. The scammer requests Western Union or MoneyGram to keep the deal going in a timely fashion as the pet is ready to go to a new home and the victim is now excited. However, after wiring money, the victim will not receive the pet (as the pets don't exist), and if the victim does hear from the scammer again it is only for more money (to get puppy out of airport holding, or to pay unexpected vet bills that have come up) until the victim stops responding.[39]


[edit] Consequences

[edit] Monetary loss estimates
Estimates of the total losses due to the scam vary widely. The Snopes website lists the following estimate:

“ The Nigerian scam is hugely successful. According to a 1997 newspaper article: 'We have confirmed losses just in the United States of over $100 million in the last 15 months,' said Special Agent James Caldwell, of the Secret Service financial crimes division. 'And that's just the ones we know of. We figure a lot of people don't report them.'[8] ”

Although the 'success rate' of the scam is hard to gauge, some experienced 419 scammers get one or two interested replies for every thousand messages. Stephanie Nolen of The Globe and Mail said that an experienced scammer can expect to make at least several thousand dollars per successful scam letter.[40]

Ultrascan Advanced Global Investigations, a Netherlands-based firm which has been studying 419 matters since the mid-1990s, has prepared a table quantifying 419 operations by country for 2005 and 2006. These stats are based on Ultrascan's in-house investigations and include, by nation: number of 419 rings; number of 419ers; income of the 419ers (the amount of losses by victims to the 419ers); and additional data. The 419 Coalition view is that these stats present a reasonably conservative and realistic look at the extent and magnitude of 419 criminal operations worldwide.

Since 1995, the United States Secret Service has been involved in combating these schemes. The organization will not investigate unless the monetary loss is in excess of 50,000 US Dollars. However, very few arrests and prosecutions have been made due to the international aspect of this crime.

In 2006, a report by a research group concluded that Internet scams in which criminals use information they trick from gullible victims and commonly strip their bank accounts cost the United Kingdom economy £150 million per year, with the average victim losing £31,000.[41]

Nelson Sakaguchi, a director at the Brazilian bank Banco Noroeste, transferred hundreds of millions of US$ to Chief Emmanuel Nwude, Nigeria's most accomplished scammer.[42] The scam led to at least two murders, including that of one of the scammers, Mr. Bless Okereke. The scam was the third biggest in banking history, after Nick Leeson's activities at Barings Bank, and the looting of the Iraqi Central Bank following the March 2003 U.S. invasion.[42]

In 2008, an Oregon Woman Janella Spears lost $400,000 to a Nigerian advance-fee fraud scam, after an email told her she had inherited money from her long-lost grandfather. Her curiosity was piqued by the fact that she actually had a grandfather who her family had lost touch with, and whose initials matched those given in the email. Spears sent hundreds of thousands of dollars over a period of more than two years, despite her family, bank staff and law enforcement officials all urging her to stop.[43][44]


[edit] Physical harm or death
Some victims have hired private investigators in Nigeria or have personally traveled to Nigeria, without ever retrieving their money. There are cases of victims being unable to cope with the losses and committing suicide.[45] In November 2003, Leslie Fountain, a senior technician at Anglia Polytechnic University in England, set himself on fire after falling victim to a scam; Mr. Fountain died of his injuries.[46] In 2006 an American living in South Africa hanged himself in Togo after being defrauded by a Ghanaian 419 con man.[47]
In February 2003, Jiri Pasovsky, a 72 year-old scam victim from the Czech Republic, shot and killed 50-year old Michael Lekara Wayid, an official at the Nigerian embassy in Prague, and injured another person, after the Nigerian Consul General explained that he could not return the $600,000 that Pasovsky had lost to a Nigerian scammer.[42][48][49][50][51]

[edit] Kidnapping
Osamai Hitomi, a Japanese businessman was lured to Johannesburg, South Africa in a 419 scam and kidnapped on 26 September, 2008. He was then taken to Alberton, south of Johannesburg and a $5 million ransom was demanded from his family. Seven people were arrested.[52]
On 23 September 2008, a Kenth Sadaaki Suzuki, a Swedish businessman, was lured to South Africa and kidnapped. He was taken to a house in Rosettenville in Johannesburg and robbed of all his belongings. Thereafter a ransom of €20,000 was demanded from his family. Two people were arrested. They are also linked to the kidnappings of three American Citizens and possibly other similar cases[53]
On June 2, 1996 in Lomé, Togo, 419ing kidnappers held a Swedish businessman for $500,000. Swedish police and the kidnappers negotiated before the kidnappers released the man on June 12, 1996.[30]
From September 1995 to April 1997, conmen held at least eight Americans against their will. In 1996 the embassy repatriated ten Americans who fell victim to 419 schemes.[30]
Joseph Raca, a former mayor of Northampton, England, was kidnapped by scammers in Johannesburg, South Africa in July 2001. The captors released Raca after they became nervous.[54]
Dănuţ Tetrescu, a Romanian who flew from Bucharest to Johannesburg to meet with con men in the Soweto area of Johannesburg, was kidnapped in 1999 and held for $500,000.[55]

[edit] Murder
29-year old George Makronalli, a Greek man, was murdered in South Africa in December 2004 after responding to a 419 scam.[31]
Kjetil Moe, a Norwegian businessman, was reported missing and ultimately killed after a trade with Nigerian scammers in Johannesburg, South Africa (September 1999).[56]
One American was murdered in Nigeria in June 1995 after being lured by a 419 scam.[57] From 1994 to April 1997 419 scammers murdered 15 people in total.[30]

[edit] Emotional harm
Victims, in addition to having lost tens of thousands of dollars, often also lose their ability to trust. The 419 Eater website says, 'Although there is no serious physical injury, many victims of con-men speak of the betrayal as the psychological equivalent of rape'. Victims may blame themselves for what has happened, resulting in overwhelming guilt and shame. If the victim has borrowed money from others to pay the scammer, these feelings are magnified. Further compounding the problem is the public opinion of scam letters and scam victims. Scam letters are often viewed as humorously moronic, and the people who fall for them equally so, although people from all walks of life and at every level of education have fallen victim. The victim, having lost money through the scammer's manipulation of payment methods such as money orders or cheques, may become distrustful of the financial system. Scam victims may stop trusting and giving money to churches, legitimate charities and, in the extreme, even service providers such as their electric company because of their requests for money. Some victims commit suicide.[45][46]

In other cases, the victim will continue to contact the scammer after being shown proof that they are being scammed or even being convicted of crimes relating to the scam, having been drawn so deeply into the web of deception that their trust in what the scammer tells them overrides everything else in their life.[58] Such victims are easy prey for future scams, digging themselves even deeper into financial and legal trouble.


[edit] Arrests
In 2004, fifty-two suspects were arrested in Amsterdam after an extensive raid.[59] An Internet service provider had noticed the increased email traffic. None were jailed or fined, due to lack of evidence. They were released in the week of July 12, 2004.

On November 8, 2004, Nick Marinellis of Sydney, Australia, was sentenced to 4 1/3 to 5 1/4 years for sending Nigerian 419 e-mails.[60]

In October 2006 the Amsterdam police launched Operation Apollo to fight internet fraud scams operated by West Africans and notably Nigerians. Following this investigation police have arrested eighty suspects, most of them from Nigeria, and seized from their homes lists of email addresses, as well as fake documents. On June 16, 2007, 111 people were arrested for being in The Netherlands illegally and suspicion of fraud, although their implication with the email scams is yet unknown.[61]

Authorities in Nigeria have been slow to take action and for many years nothing was done. Nigeria has a reputation for criminals being able to avoid convictions through bribery and rumours abounded of official connivance in the scams.[62] In 2003 however the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) was charged with tackling the problem.[63] A couple of success stories including convictions in a large 419 case were reported in 2005.[64]

Edna Fiedler, 44, of Olympia, Washington, on June 25, 2008, pleaded guilty in a Tacoma court and was sentenced to 2 years imprisonment and 5 years of supervised release or probation in an Internet $1 million 'Nigerian check scam.' She conspired to commit bank, wire and mail fraud, against US citizens, specifically using Internet by having had an accomplice who shipped counterfeit checks and money orders to her from Lagos, Nigeria, last November. Fiedler shipped out $ 609,000 fake check and money orders when arrested and prepared to send additional $ 1.1 million counterfeit materials. Also, the U.S. Postal Service recently intercepted counterfeit checks, lottery tickets and eBay overpayment schemes with a face value of $2.1 billion.[65][66]


[edit] Victim becoming a criminal
Victims of the fraud sometimes fall directly into crime by borrowing or stealing money to pay the advanced fees, believing an early payday is imminent. Credit-card fraud, check kiting, and embezzlement are among the crimes committed to pay the advances, with an expectation of having the money to repay the unauthorized loans.

Former Alcona County (Michigan) Treasurer Thomas A. Katona was sentenced to 9–14 years for his embezzlement of more than US$1.2 million in county funds in a Nigerian fraud scheme, which represented 25% of the county's budget for 2006.[67]
Robert Andrew Street,[68] a Melbourne-based financial adviser, who fleeced his clients for over AU$1 million which he sent to the scammers in the hope of receiving US$65 million in return. Eventually the Australian Securities and Investments Commission (ASIC) investigated the victim, who had now become a conman himself.
A bookkeeper for the Michigan law firm[69] Olsman Mueller & James who in 2002 emptied the company bank account of US$2.1 million in expectation of a US$4.5 million payout.
John W. Worley fell for a Nigerian scam and was convicted of taking money under false pretenses.[70]
According to Kurt Eichenwald, author of The Informant, Mark Whitacre defrauded Archer Daniels Midland, a food products manufacturer for which he was a division president, embezzling US$9 million during the same period of time that he was acting as an informant for the FBI in a price fixing scheme that ADM was involved in. His illegal activities in trying to procure funds for payment of his supposed Nigerian benefactors cost him his immunity in the price-fixing scandal, according to Eichenwald's book, The Informant. Eichenwald lost his credibility, his job, and his career in journalism because of lying about his payments to a source in a recent case.[71][72] James Lieber, author of Rats in the Grain and an attorney, also wrote a book about Whitacre in which he disagreed with Eichenwald's conclusions about Whitacre and the Nigerian scam.[73][74][75]

[edit] 'Scam baiters'
Various groups and individuals have engaged against '419' frauds by making scammers lose their time or some amount of money[76]


[edit] Terms used by 419-scammers
Fall mugu (to)
To be fooled, to become victim of advance-fee fraud.
Flash of account
Cause the victim's bank account to temporarily show a large credit. This is intended to induce the victim to believe in the deal and send money. The credit gets reversed by the bank when it is discovered that the original cheque or electronic transfer was fraudulent.
Format
The scheme or script of an advance-fee fraud, e.g., the late dictator format (the scammer pretends to be a relative of a dictator, e.g. Maryam Abacha, 'Wife' of Sani Abacha), the next of kin format, the lottery format.
Guyman, guy
Scammer engaged in advance-fee fraud.
Jokeman
A scambaiter.
Luxcini
An investment scam involving a line of men's luxury clothing based in Beverly Hills, California
Maga, mugu, mugun, mahi, magha,[24] mahee, mayi, mayee, mgbada(antelope)
Victim of advance-fee fraud. 'Mugu' means 'fool' and is often used as an insult by scam-baiters referring back to the scammer.
Modalities
commonly used term for methods of funds transfer.[3][77]
Nwachukwu
An advanced fee fraud posing as a Stock Options trading corporation.
Oga or Chairman
Boss
Owner of the job, Catcher
Scammer who makes the first contact with a victim and then passes him on to another scammer who finishes the job. The latter shares the spoil with the former.
Runs
An (illegal) activity.
Yahoo millionaires,[78] yahoo boys
[79] Scammers
Yahoo yahoo
The act of scamming, especially through the use of a Yahoo! mail address.

[edit] Popular culture references
CollegeHumor posted a video called 'Gwammi Mufasta' and 'Where Spam Comes From' on September 26, 2006 as part of its CollegeHumor original videos.[80][81][82]
In Irregular Webcomic!, the Nigerian Finance Minister is the sender of the 'scam' emails, which are, in IWC, genuine.[83].
In Least I Could Do, Rayne Summers receives a variant of the scam that claims that there is a Nigerian princess waiting for him to come claim her fortune. He and his friend John Gold go to Nigeria for Rayne to claim his princess[84].
In the popular machinima show Red vs Blue special episode 'Guide to the Internet,' reference is made to 419 e-mails, mocking the fact that the scammer cannot spell 'Nigeria' or even 'royalty' correctly.
The e4 comedy show Fonejacker parodies this 419 scam, with a Ugandan, George Adgdgdwngo, requesting unsuspecting victim's bank account numbers and sort codes for them to gain access to large amounts of Ugandan dollars.
The US television series Veronica Mars included an episode titled 'The Wrath of Con', in which a high school girl gets scammed by advance-fee fraud.
In the 2007 Futurama movie, Bender's Big Score, Professor Farnsworth falls for a Lottery Scam after he thought he'd won the lottery by giving away his personal details on the internet.
Nerdcore rapper MC Frontalot has written a song (Message No. 419) about the 419 scam on his debut album Nerdcore Rising.
In the NBC Series 30 Rock, one of the main characters, Tracy Jordan, informs his employee/friends, Grizz and Dotcom, that the check for helping 'that Nigerian Prince' has arrived, implying that it was not a scam, just a test of patience, however, obviously the implied truth was for the purposes of the show as a comedy series.
In the HBO comedy series, Flight of The Conchords, the band's manager, Murray, uses the band's emergency funds for an investment with a Nigerian, Mr. Nigel Soladu, whos turns out to be an real person. The bands receives a 1000% profit, which they then used to get bailed out of jail.

[edit] See also
Scam baiting
Employment scams
Phishing
Pigeon drop
List of e-mail scams
Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) The Nigerian financial authority mandated to investigate against advance-fee frauds.
True-believer syndrome
PhoneBusters Canadian law enforcement project combating advance-fee fraud
Nigerian organized crime
Fred Ajudua
Spam email

[edit] References
^ 'How to identify and avoid hoax or fraudulent e-mail scams,' Microsoft
^ 'Nigerian Money Offer Scams,' AARP
^ a b 'Money Transfer hoax,' F-Secure
^ ''Nigerian Scam' Lures Companies,' The New York Times
^ 'International Financial Scams – Internet Dating, Inheritance, Work Permits, Overpayment, and Money-Laundering,' United States Department of State
^ 'Nigerian Criminal Code'. http://www.nigeria-..20end.htm. Retrieved on 2007-03-24.
^ 'ADS-L, 9 Feb 2005'. http://listserv.lin..2863&I=-3. Retrieved on 2006-03-24.
^ a b c d 'Nigerian Scam'. Snopes. 2003-09-06. http://www.snopes.c..geria.asp. Retrieved on 2006-07-09.
^ Memoirs of Vidocq, Principal agent to the French police until 1827, wriitzn by himself, publ. 1834 by Carey, Hart & Co., page 58 : http://books.google..lem+letter
^ 'Baiters Teach Scammers a Lesson,' Wired
^ 'Travel Warning NIGERIA,' Bureau of Consular Affairs United States Department of State
^ ''419 SCAM',' US Diplomatic Mission to Ghana
^ 'Scam Alert !,' Intercontinental Bank Ghana
^ a b 'Benin: 2005 Country Commercial Guide,' Embassy of the United States Cotonou, Benin
^ a b c d e f g 'WEST AFRICAN ADVANCE FEE SCAMS,' United States Embassy in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire
^ 'Togo,' United States Department of State
^ a b 'Advance Fee Fraud,' Hampshire Constabulary
^ 'American Victims of Crimes in Senegal,' Embassy of the United States Dakar, Senegal
^ 'Burkina Faso Consular Information Sheet October 05, 2005,' United States Department of State
^ a b 'Advance Fee Fraud,' British Bankers' Association
^ a b 'Fraud Scheme Information,' United States Consulate General of Amsterdam
^ 'Latest e-mail uses Alaska Airlines crash victims to scam,' Seattle Post-Intelligencer
^ 'Zimbabwe appeal,' WA ScamNet of West Australia
^ a b c 'I Will Eat Your Dollars' By Robyn Dixon Times Staff Writer Thu Oct 20, 7:55 AM ET
^ 'Nigerian Cyber Scammers.' Los Angeles Times. 2.
^ 'Nigerian Cyber Scammers.' Los Angeles Times. 3.
^ Mayer, Caroline E. (2006-06-01). 'Banks Honor Bogus Cheques and Scam Victims Pay'. The Washington Post. p. A01. http://www.washingt..2004.html. Retrieved on 2006-07-09.
^ 'E-Mail Scammers Ask Your Friends for Money,' The New York Times
^ Con artists target phone system for the deaf, MSNBC
^ a b c d e 'Nigerian Advance Fee Fraud,' United States Department of State Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs
^ a b Philip de Braun (2004-12-31). 'SA cops, Interpol probe murder'. News24. http://www.news24.c..5,00.html. Retrieved on 2006-07-09.
^ 'Scam Bait - the Nigerian Scam,' About.com
^ Denton Woman Says Mystery Shopper Job Was Scam - NBC5i.com, Dallas
^ 'Grant's Boon.' Snopes.
^ 'Hitman Bribe Scam', Snopes
^ a b 'FBI looks overseas in ongoing bomb scam,' MSNBC
^ 'Charitable Contributions,' Internal Revenue Service
^ 'Scam Me Twice, Shame on Me...,' Snopes
^ http://www.news.com..21,00.html
^ 'Nigerian e-mail scammers feeding on greed, gullibility,' The Globe and Mail
^ 'Nigeria scams 'cost UK billions''. BBC News. 2006-11-20. http://news.bbc.co...63700.stm. Retrieved on 2006-11-20.
^ a b c Misha Glenny. McMafia. Vintage Books. pp. 138-141. ISBN 9780099481256.
^ http://www.katu.com..92654.html
^ http://www.onlineco..-scam.html
^ a b 'Fraud Alert - 419 Fraud'. London Metropolitan Police. http://www.met.poli..t/419.htm. Retrieved on 2006-07-09.
^ a b 'Suicide of Internet Scam Victim'. British Broadcasting Corporation. http://news.bbc.co...44307.stm. Retrieved on 2006-09-26. .
^ 'Surge in global Internet scams prompts new U.S. warning to Internet users,' International Herald Tribune
^ 'Nigerian scam continues to thrive', MSNBC
^ 'Internet technology fueling Nigerian scam'. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 2003-04-01. http://www.avma.org..0401d.asp. Retrieved on 2006-07-09.
^ 'Czech pensioner charged with murdering Nigerian consul'. Radio Prague. 2003-02-20. http://www.radio.cz..ews/37806. Retrieved on 2006-07-09.
^ 'Nigerian Slain Over E-Mail Scam,' Wired
^ '[1],' [2]
^ '[3],' [4]
^ 'Kidnapped Briton tells of terror,' BBC
^ ''I Brought You A Good News,' An Analysis of Nigerian 419 Letters,' Oregon Institute of Technology
^ 'Moe funnet død,' Dagbladet
^ 'Woman falls for Nigerian scam,' New Jersey Herald
^ 'Nigerian scam victims maintain the faith,' The Sydney Morning Herald
^ Dutch 419 inside job, The Register, retrieved 31 December 2006
^ Nigerian 419 Scam Spammer Sentenced to Five Years in Prison
^ Dutch act on 'Nigerian scams', The Australian, retrieved 18 June 2007
^ Skeptics Journal 1998
^ 'About the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission'. EFCC website accessed 25 July 2007.
^ 'Text of A Media Conference by Mallam Nuhu Ribadu, Executive Chairman, EFCC' (Monday, 21 November 2005). EFCC website retrieved 25 July 2007.
^ upi.com, Woman gets prison for 'Nigerian' scam
^ yahoo.com, Woman Gets Two Years for Aiding Nigerian Internet Check Scam (PC World)
^ 'Former Alcona County Treasurer Sentenced to 9-14 Years in Nigerian Scam Case,' Office of the Attorney General, Michigan
^ 419ers take Aussie financial advisor for AU$1m, The Register, Published Tuesday 19th October 2004 GMT
^ Haines, Lester. 'Woman falls for Nigerian scam, steals $2.1m from law firm,' The Register
^ 'Annals of Crime: The Perfect Mark,' The New Yorker
^ 'Kurt Eichenwald Resigns from Portfolio, The New York Gazette
^ 'ADM case still making headlines,' Globe Gazette
^ 'Supermarket for Scandal,' University of Pennsylvania
^ 'Rats In the Grain. - Review - book review'
^ RATS IN THE GRAIN: The Dirty Tricks and Trials of Archer Daniels Midland The Supermarket to the World
^ Baiting Nigerian scammers for fun (not so much for profit) at ArsTechnica.
^ 'Advance fee fraud schemes,' Yale University
^ 'Online scams create 'Yahoo! millionaires',' CNN Money
^ 'Nigeria cracks down on e-mail scams,' Christian Science Monitor
^ 'Gwammi Mufasta.' College Humor. September 26, 2006.
^ Where Spam Comes From at YouTube College Humor. September 26, 2006.
^ 'Where Spam Comes From.' College Humor (at MySpace). September 26, 2006.
^ 'The first 5 strips of the Nigerian Finance Minister theme.' Irregular Webcomic!. April 6, 2003.
^ 'The first strip of the Nigerian Princess storyline.' Least I Could Do. February 25, 2009.

[edit] Books
Berry, Michael (2006). Greetings in Jesus Name!: The Scambaiter Letters. Harbour Books. ISBN 1905128088. http://books.google..tAAAACAAJ.
Edelson, Eve (2006). Scamorama: Turning the Tables on Email Scammers. Disinformation Company. ISBN 1932857389. http://books.google..bAAAACAAJ.
Tive, Charles (2006). 419 Scam: Exploits of the Nigerian Con Man. iUniverse.com. ISBN 0595413862. http://books.google..WX_2pvFwC.
Van Wijk, Anton (2009). Mountains of gold; An exploratory research on Nigerian 419-fraud: backgrounds. SWP Publishing. ISBN 978-90-8850-028-2. http://419.swpbook.com.
The Fraudsters - How Con Artists Steal Your Money Chapter 6 The 419ers (ISBN 978-1-903582-82-4) by Eamon Dillon, published September 2008 by Merlin Publishing

[edit] External links
Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Advance-fee fraud
Advance-fee fraud at the Open Directory Project
Interview with 'Scamorama' author Eve Edelson
419 scams
[show]v • d • eScams

· Advance fee fraud · Badger game · Bait and switch · Black money scam · Bogus escrow · Charity fraud · Coin rolling scams · Fine print · Foreclosure rescue · Get-rich-quick scheme · Green Goods Scam · Intellectual property scams · Miracle Cars scam · Mock auction · Patent safe · Pigeon drop · Ponzi scheme · Reloading scam · Share scam · Shell game · Slavery reparations scam · Strip search prank call scam · Teaser rate · Telemarketing fraud · Thai gem scam · Thai tailor scam · Trojan horse · Work-at-home scheme


[show]v • d • eConfidence tricks and con artists

Terminology Confidence trick · Error account · Mark · Shill · Sucker list

Notable confidence tricks Advance fee fraud · Badger game · Black money scam · Bogus escrow · Clip joint · Drop Swindle · Embarrassing cheque · Employment scams · Hustling · Mock auction · Penny-and-dime scam · Pig in a poke · Pigeon drop · Reloading scam · Shell game · Slavery reparations scam · Spanish Prisoner · Thai gem scam · Thai tailor scam · Three-card Monte · White van speakers

Pyramid and Ponzi schemes
(List of Ponzi schemes) Dona Branca · Caritas · Bernard Cornfeld · Foundation for New Era Philanthropy · High-yield investment program · Investors Overseas Service · MMM · Make Money Fast · Reed Slatkin

Notable con artists Frank Abagnale · Tino De Angelis · Philip Arnold · Nicky Arnstein · Scotty · Lou Blonger · Ed 'Big Ed' Burns · David 'Race' Bannon · Matthew Cox · Louis Enricht · Billie Sol Estes · Arthur Furguson · Peter Foster · Oscar Hartzell · Sante Kimes · Henri Lemoine
2009-05-14, 09:29:24
anonymous from United States  
Here's another one of Mavis Adu in Ghana. DO NOT TRUST ANYONE FROM GHANA


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2009-05-14, 12:20:11
OJAS from United States  
US 2009-05-14, 09:29:24 http://romancescam...eshow=5000
2009-05-14, 22:53:49
anonymous from United States  



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2009-05-15, 08:53:37
wanwan from Japan  
@2009-05-13, 03:12:57
cagekopia@yahoo.com from Ghana


Hi,scambuster in Ghana !!

I ask you for investigation, but sound of silence,why?
We are waiting for your answer,please.
Thanks,buster in Ghana !
http://www.youtube...Uy9ePyo6Q




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2009-05-15, 15:32:53   (updated: 2009-05-15, 15:33:33)
Agent,86 from Salem, United States  
rating
cagekopia Page 131

You would have saved, Yourself a useless speech if, You had read what, I wrote.
I never specifically said anything about, You trying to hook, Me up with someone
from, Ghana, I said someone ? From Sweden.
I am not at all convinced by anything, You have said to show me, Your true intentions.
First off, You need to stop any further attempts to convince anyone there are good
girls that, You recommend for any reason. Your claim as to being a scam buster
is brought very much into question by that alone.
I will never visit Ghana but have contacted several people, Who went there and
I find it interesting, Your accounts do not match up. Also not only myself
but others have and still are currently reporting sending money through Western
Union to Ghana and no ID is required. So start believing me when, I say this
has happened and is in fact still happening.
If, Your true intent is to be a scam buster stop being a Tourist Guide.
Woman in Ghana as everything, I have ever learned have no interest in
going on line looking for, Love at all. In fact they want to stay in Ghana.
So, I will be keeping a very close eye on all, You do.

Kind Regards Agent 86 Maxwell Smart \\'^o^'//
This image was also posted here:
Dating scammer amada faith Davis
Dating scammer amada faith Davis
Dating scammer amada faith Davis
Dating scammer Amanda Lescott or Frimpong
Dating scammer Natalya from Osinniki, Russia
Scammer Jane Mabou from Ivory Coast, Africa
Dating scammer Esther Ansomaa from Accra, Ghana
Dating scammer Ms. Rhoda Addo from Accra, Ghana
Dating scammer Elena
Scammer Jane Mabou from Ivory Coast, Africa
Dating scammer Aleksandra
Dating scammer April Rose Asperin
Dating scammer Jessica Murphy
Dating scammer Bill Dorsen
Dating scammer Esther Ansomaa from Accra, Ghana
Dating scammer Ekaterina Rozhentsova
Dating scammer Osai Williams from Ghana
Dating scammer Tatiana Sheglova from Kirov, Russia
Dating scammer Daniela Munteanu
The UK NATIONAL LOTTERY scam
Dating scammer David Neff
Dating scammer garett smith
Dating scammer elizabeth binney
Dating scammer Osai Williams from Ghana



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2009-05-15, 16:09:25
LARS from Sweden  
To cagekopia (Scam buster Ghana) Yes you helped me with Dora. But when both you and the girl you wanted to set me up with stop answer my texts when you find out i dont have any money, i become little disappointed.
2009-05-15, 20:29:52
mmsrfrd@comcast.,net from La Fayette, United States  
rating
All men should watch out for this one True.com profile, Lonelyessheart, Joyceroce09@yahoo.com, stolen photos from a model, checked this one out very careful, she will try to scam you very fast, within a day if you will let her, this is all fake from the get go. Claimes to be from Accra, Ghana, with phone number from that country, she is from Washington D. C., with no connection of any dating site.


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2009-05-16, 01:07:06
wanwan from Japan  
@2009-05-15, 16:09:25
LARS from Sweden

Hello,how are you ? I hope that you are happy in Sweden.
And I have a big interesting in your post and comment.
You told about Scam Buster ''cagekopia (Scam buster Ghana) ''.
I want to listen to your full story about cagekopia (Scam buster Ghana) much more.
On this web site ,now we can not judge what he is a real scam buster or not.
Because we have no info of him.He claims that he is a real scam buster in Ghana.
I want to trust him,but it is very very hard for many victims on this web site to believe him
as a real scam buster.For example,you already have known Magnus in Sweden,
he has been robbed of 13,000$$$$$$ by pervert russian scammer,Anna,Anahit.
I guess Magnus is in ''Doubts beget doubts.''. It is very hard for him to believe '' New Scam Buster''.
So I want to know ''cagekopia (Scam buster Ghana) ''.Lars,please post the full story of ''cagekopia (Scam buster Ghana)on. ''. I think that it is very very important for us why you Lars,have a disappointment in ''cagekopia (Scam buster Ghana) ''.We want to know the point of your disappointment.
Thank you for your time,Lars in Sweden.And my English is so funny,I am sorry to that.
Have a good day.By the way you have a good football player ,a good striker.

from donkey in Japan
This image was also posted here:
Dating scammer Anna Ogannisyan
Dating scammer Anna Ogannisyan
Dating scammer Anna Ogannisyan



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